The pheromone response and the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathways are considered the prototypical MAPK signaling systems. They are the best-understood pathways in eukaryotic cells, yet they continue to provide insights in how cells relate with the environment. These systems are subjected to tight regulatory circuits to prevent hyperactivation in length and intensity. Failure to do this may be a matter of life or death specially for unicellular organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The signaling pathways are fine-tuned by positive and negative feedback loops exerted by pivotal control elements that allow precise responses to specific stimuli, despite the fact that some elements of the systems are common to different signaling pathways. Here we describe the experimentally proven negative feedback loops that modulate the pheromone response and the HOG pathways. As described in this review, MAP kinases are central mechanistic components of these feedback loops. They have the capacity to modulate basal signaling activity, a fast extranuclear response, and a longer-lasting transcriptional process.
Última actualización: 12/08/2020