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Nunez-Martinez, Hober Nelson; Recillas-Targa, Felix (2022)

EMERGING FUNCTIONS OF LNCRNA LOCI BEYOND THE TRANSCRIPT ITSELF

Int J Mol Sci 23(11):
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Thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are actively transcribed in mammalian genomes. This class of RNAs has important regulatory functions in a broad range of cellular processes and diseases. Numerous lncRNAs have been demonstrated to mediate gene regulation through RNA-based mechanisms. Simultaneously, non-functional lncRNA transcripts derived from the activity of lncRNA loci have been identified, which underpin the notion that a considerable fraction of lncRNA loci exert regulatory functions through mechanisms associated with the production or the activity of lncRNA loci beyond the synthesized transcripts. We particularly distinguish two main RNA-independent components associated with regulatory effects; the act of transcription and the activity of DNA regulatory elements. We describe the experimental approaches to distinguish and understand the functional mechanisms derived from lncRNA loci. These scenarios reveal emerging mechanisms important to understanding the lncRNA implications in genome biology.