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Zepeda-Cervantes, Jesus; Martinez-Flores, Daniel; Ramirez-Jarquin, Josue Orlando; Tecalco-Cruz, angeles C; Alavez-Perez, Noe Santiago; Vaca, Luis; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena (2022)

IMPLICATIONS OF THE IMMUNE POLYMORPHISMS OF THE HOST AND THE GENETIC VARIABILITY OF SARS-COV-2 IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COVID-19

Viruses 14(1):
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the current pandemic affecting almost all countries in the world. SARS-CoV-2 is the agent responsible for coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), which has claimed millions of lives around the world. In most patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection does not cause clinical signs. However, some infected people develop symptoms, which include loss of smell or taste, fever, dry cough, headache, severe pneumonia, as well as coagulation disorders. The aim of this work is to report genetic factors of SARS-CoV-2 and host-associated to severe COVID-19, placing special emphasis on the viral entry and molecules of the immune system involved with viral infection. Besides this, we analyze SARS-CoV-2 variants and their structural characteristics related to the binding to polymorphic angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2). Additionally, we also review other polymorphisms as well as some epigenetic factors involved in the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19. These factors and viral variability could explain the increment of infection rate and/or in the development of severe COVID-19.