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Lopez-Ornelas, Adolfo; Jimenez, Adriana; Perez-Sanchez, Gilberto; Rodriguez-Perez, Citlali Ekaterina; Corzo-Cruz, Alejandro; Velasco, Ivan; Estudillo, Enrique (2022)

THE IMPAIRMENT OF BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES WITH STEM CELLS

Int J Mol Sci 23(17):
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and its prevalence is increasing. Nowadays, very few drugs effectively reduce AD symptoms and thus, a better understanding of its pathophysiology is vital to design new effective schemes. Presymptomatic neuronal damage caused by the accumulation of Amyloid β peptide and Tau protein abnormalities remains a challenge, despite recent efforts in drug development. Importantly, therapeutic targets, biomarkers, and diagnostic techniques have emerged to detect and treat AD. Of note, the compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) and peripheral inflammation in AD are becoming more evident, being harmful factors that contribute to the development of the disease. Perspectives from different pre-clinical and clinical studies link peripheral inflammation with the onset and progression of AD. This review aims to analyze the main factors and the contribution of impaired BBB in AD development. Additionally, we describe the potential therapeutic strategies using stem cells for AD treatment.