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Olguin-Martinez, Enrique; Munoz-Paleta, Ofelia; Ruiz-Medina, Blanca E; Ramos-Balderas, Jose Luis; Licona-Limon, Ileana; Licona-Limon, Paula (2022)


Front Immunol 13():
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Type 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are tissue-resident immune cells activated by epithelial-derived alarmins upon tissue damage. They regulate immunity against helminth parasites and allergies by expressing type 2 immune response cytokines including IL-9, known to be critical for inducing and potentiating the immune response in such context. Although ILC2s are reported to be the main source of IL-9 in mice during infection, the mechanisms that regulate the expression of IL-9 in these cells are yet to be described. Recent studies have shown that in addition to cytokines, multiple molecules can differentially modulate the functions of ILC2s in various contexts both and . Among these stimuli are lipid mediators and neuropeptides, which activate the PKA pathway and have been associated with the regulation of type 2 immune cytokines. In this work we found that ILC2s in mice infected with can be classified into different groups based on the expression of IL-9 and ST2. These distinct populations were distributed in the lung and the small intestine. Through the development of an culture system, we sought to determine the stimuli that regulate the expression of these markers in ILC2s. We identified the alarmin IL-33 as being a key player for increased IL-9 expression. Additionally, we found the PKA pathway to be a dual regulator of ILC2 cells, working synergistically with IL-33 to enhance IL-9 production and capable of modulating proliferation and the expression of ILC2 markers. These data provide further evidence of a high heterogeneity between ILC2 subsets in a context dependent manner and calls for careful consideration when choosing the markers to identify these cells . Distinguishing ILC2 subsets and dissecting their mechanisms of activation is critical for a deeper understanding of the biology of these cells, allowing their manipulation for therapeutic purposes.