QR Code
Lopez, Geovani; Quezada, Hector; Duhne, Mariana; Gonzalez, James; Lezama, Mijail; El-Hafidi, Mohammed; Colon, Maritrini; Martinez de la Escalera, Ximena; Citlali Flores-Villegas, Mirelle; Scazzocchio, Claudio; DeLuna, Alexander; Gonzalez, Alicia (2015)

DIVERSIFICATION OF PARALOGOUS ALPHA-ISOPROPYLMALATE SYNTHASES BY MODULATION OF FEEDBACK CONTROL AND HETERO-OLIGOMERIZATION IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

Eukaryotic Cell 14(6):564-577
full text

Production of α-isopropylmalate (α-IPM) is critical for leucine biosynthesis and for the global control of metabolism. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two paralogous genes, LEU4 and LEU9, that encode α-IPM synthase (α-IPMS) isozymes. Little is known about the biochemical differences between these two α-IPMS isoenzymes. Here, we show that the Leu4 homodimer is a leucine-sensitive isoform, while the Leu9 homodimer is resistant to such feedback inhibition. The leu4Δ mutant, which expresses only the feedback-resistant Leu9 homodimer, grows slowly with either glucose or ethanol and accumulates elevated pools of leucine; this phenotype is alleviated by the addition of leucine. Transformation of the leu4Δ mutant with a centromeric plasmid carrying LEU4 restored the wild-type phenotype. Bimolecular fluorescent complementation analysis showed that Leu4-Leu9 heterodimeric isozymes are formed in vivo. Purification and kinetic analysis showed that the hetero-oligomeric isozyme has a distinct leucine sensitivity behavior. Determination of α-IPMS activity in ethanol-grown cultures showed that α-IPM biosynthesis and growth under these respiratory conditions depend on the feedback-sensitive Leu4 homodimer. We conclude that retention and further diversification of two yeast α-IPMSs have resulted in a specific regulatory system that controls the leucine-α-IPM biosynthetic pathway by selective feedback sensitivity of homomeric and heterodimeric isoforms.