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Carmona-Rosas, Gabriel; Hernandez-Espinosa, David A; Alcantara-Hernandez, Rod; Alfonzo-Mendez, Marco A; Adolfo Garcia-Sainz, J (2019)


Cell. Signal. 53():374-389
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The human α-adrenergic receptor is a seven transmembrane-domain protein that mediates many of the physiological actions of adrenaline and noradrenaline and participates in the development of hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. We recently reported that different phosphorylation patterns control α-adrenergic receptor desensitization. However, to our knowledge, there is no data regarding the role(s) of this receptor's specific phosphorylation residues in its subcellular localization and signaling. In order to address this issue, we mutated the identified phosphorylated residues located on the third intracellular loop and carboxyl tail. In this way, we experimentally confirmed α-AR phosphorylation sites and identified, in the carboxyl tail, two groups of residues in close proximity to each other, as well as two individual residues in the proximal (T442) and distal (S543) regions. Our results indicate that phosphorylation of the distal cluster (T507, S515, S516 and S518) favors α-AR localization at the plasma membrane, i. e., substitution of these residues for non-phosphorylatable amino acids results in the intracellular localization of the receptors, whereas phospho-mimetic substitution allows plasma membrane localization. Moreover, we found that T442 phosphorylation is necessary for agonist- and phorbol ester-induced receptor colocalization with β-arrestins. Additionally, we observed that substitution of intracellular loop 3 phosphorylation sites for non-phosphorylatable amino acids resulted in sustained ERK1/2 activation; additional mutations in the phosphorylated residues in the carboxyl tail did not alter this pattern. In contrast, mobilization of intracellular calcium and receptor internalization appear to be controlled by the phosphorylation of both third-intracellular-loop and carboxyl terminus-domain residues. In summary, our data indicate that a) both the phosphorylation sites present in the third intracellular loop and in the carboxyl terminus participate in triggering calcium signaling and in turning-off α-AR-induced ERK activation; b) phosphorylation of the distal cluster appears to play a role in receptor's plasma membrane localization; and c) T442 appears to play a critical role in receptor phosphorylation and receptor-β-arrestin colocalization.