The hypersecretory phenotype of adrenal chromaffin cells (CCs) from early spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) mainly results from enhanced Ca-induced Ca-release (CICR). A key question is if these abnormalities can be traced to the prehypertensive stage. Spontaneous and stimulus-induced catecholamine exocytosis, intracellular Ca signals, and dense-core granule size and density were examined in CCs from prehypertensive and hypertensive SHRs and compared with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). During the prehypertensive stage, the depolarization-elicited catecholamine exocytosis was ~ 2.9-fold greater in SHR than in WKY CCs. Interestingly, in half of CCs the exocytosis was indistinguishable from WKY CCs, while it was between 3- and sixfold larger in the other half. Likewise, caffeine-induced exocytosis was ~ twofold larger in prehypertensive SHR. Accordingly, depolarization and caffeine application elicited [Ca]i rises ~ 1.5-fold larger in prehypertensive SHR than in WKY CCs. Ryanodine reduced the depolarization-induced secretion in prehypertensive SHR by 57%, compared to 14% in WKY CCs, suggesting a greater contribution of intracellular Ca release to exocytosis. In SHR CCs, the mean spike amplitude and charge per spike were significantly larger than in WKY CCs, regardless of age and stimulus type. This difference in granule content could explain in part the enhanced exocytosis in SHR CCs. However, electron microscopy did not reveal significant differences in granule size between SHRs and WKY rats' adrenal medulla. Nonetheless, preSHR and hypSHR display 63% and 82% more granules than WKY, which could explain in part the enhanced catecholamine secretion. The mechanism responsible for the heterogeneous population of prehypertensive SHR CCs and the bias towards secreting more medium and large granules remains unexplained.
Última actualización: 25/10/2021