Cation/proton antiporters are membrane proteins found throughout the eukaryotic and prokaryotic kingdoms. These proteins exchange cations (Na+ or K+) for protons (H+) across cytoplasmic and organelle membranes. They therefore link the electrochemical potential of the cations (D?Na+ or D?K+) and the hydrogen (D?H+) ions, maintained across the biological membranes. The transmembrane ion cycle consists of two process, the formation of an electrochemical potential for a particular ion, followed by a reaction or reactions which recycle the ion back down its electrochemical gradient. These systems are central in the regulation of internal pH and prevent the excessive accumulation of monovalent cations in the cells. Here we review the various cation/proton antiporters that have been described in yeast cells and their properties.
Última actualización: 23/03/2018