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Lopez-Casillas, F; Mendoza, V; Vilchis-Landeros, MM; Mendoza-Hernandez, G; Huang, T; Villarreal, MM; Hinck, AP; Montiel, JL (2009)

BETAGLYCAN HAS TWO INDEPENDENT DOMAINS REQUIRED FOR HIGH AFFINITY TGF-BETA BINDING: PROTEOLYTIC CLEAVAGE SEPARATES THE DOMAINS AND INACTIVATES THE NEU

BIOCHEMISTRY-US 48(49):11755-11765
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Betaglycan is a coreceptor for members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Mutagenesis has identified two ligand binding regions, one at the membrane-distal and the other at the membrane-proximal half of the betaglycan ectodomain. Here we show that partial plasmin digestion of soluble betaglycan produces two proteolysis-resistant fragments of 45 and 55 kDa, consistent with the predicted secondary structure, which indicates an intervening nonstructured linker region separating the highly structured N- and C-terminal domains. Amino terminal sequencing indicates that the 45 and 55 kDa fragments correspond, respectively, to the membrane-distal and -proximal regions. Plasmin treatment of membrane betaglycan results in the production of equivalent proteolysis-resistant fragments. The 45 and 55 kDa fragments, as well as their recombinant soluble counterparts, Sol Delta 10 and Sol Delta 11, bind TGF-beta but nonetheless, compared to intact soluble betaglycan, have a severely diminished ability to block TGF-beta activity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis indicates that soluble betaglycan has K-d's in the low nanomolar range for the three TGF-beta isoforms, while those for Sol Delta 10 and Sol Delta 11 are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher. SPR analysis further shows that the K-d's of Sol Delta 11 are not changed in the presence of Sol Delta 10, indicating that the high affinity of soluble betaglycan is a consequence of tethering the domains together. Overall, these results suggest that betaglycan ectodomain exhibits it bilobular structure in which each lobule folds independently and binds TGF-beta through distinct nonoverlapping interfaces and that linker modification may be an approach to improve soluble betaglycan's TGF-beta neutralizing activity.