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Toledo-Ibelles P; Mas-Oliva J (2018)

ANTIOXIDANTS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST ATHEROSCLEROSIS: IS THIS A DEAD END?

CURR ATHEROSCLER REP 20(7):
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© 2018, The Author(s). Purpose of Review: The purpose of this review is to focus on the outcome of recent antioxidant interventions using synthetic and naturally occurring molecules established as adjuvant strategies to lipid-lowering or anti-inflammatory therapies designed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent Findings: To date, accumulated evidence regarding oxidation as a pro-atherogenic factor indicates that redox biochemical events involved in atherogenesis are indeed a very attractive target for the management of cardiovascular disease in the clinic. Nevertheless, although evidence indicates that redox reactions are important in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, oxidation with a pro-atherogenic context does not eliminate the fact that oxidation participates in many cases as an essential messenger of important cellular signaling pathways. Therefore, disease management and therapeutic goals require not only high-precision and high-sensitivity methods to detect in plasma very low amounts of reducing and oxidizing molecules but also a much better understanding of the normal processes and metabolic pathways influenced and/or controlled by oxidative stress. As several methodologies have been specifically described for the quantification of the total antioxidant capacity and the oxidation state of diverse biological systems, a successful way to carefully study how redox reactions influence atherosclerosis can be achieved. Summary: Since there is still a lack of standardization with many of these methods, clinical trials studying antioxidant capacity have been difficult to compare and therefore difficult to use in order to reach a conclusion. We believe a comprehensive analysis of new knowledge and its relationship with the presence of plasma antioxidants and their reducing capacity will undoubtedly open new ways to understand and develop new therapeutic pathways in the fight not only against atherosclerosis but also against other degenerative diseases.