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Calleja LF; Yoval-Sánchez B; Hernández-Esquivel L; Gallardo-Pérez JC; Sosa-Garrocho M; Marín-Hernández Á; Jasso-Chávez R; Macías-Silva M; Salud Rodríguez-Zavala J (2021)


FEBS J ():
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© 2021 Federation of European Biochemical Societies Under physiological conditions, cells produce low basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, in pathologic conditions ROS production increases dramatically, generating high concentrations of toxic unsaturated aldehydes. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for detoxification of these aldehydes protecting the cell. Due to the physiological relevance of these enzymes, it is important to design strategies to modulate their activity. It was previously reported that omeprazole activation of ALDH1A1 protected Escherichia coli cells overexpressing this enzyme, from oxidative stress generated by H2O2. In this work, omeprazole cell protection potential was evaluated in eukaryotic cells. AS-30D cell or hepatocyte suspensions were subjected to a treatment with omeprazole and exposure to light (that is required to activate omeprazole in the active site of ALDH) and then exposed to H2O2. Cells showed viability similar to control cells, total activity of ALDH was preserved, while cell levels of lipid aldehydes and oxidative stress markers were maintained low. Cell protection by omeprazole was avoided by inhibition of ALDHs with disulfiram, revealing the key role of these enzymes in the protection. Additionally, omeprazole also preserved ALDH2 (mitochondrial isoform) activity, diminishing lipid aldehyde levels and oxidative stress in this organelle, protecting mitochondrial respiration and transmembrane potential formation capacity, from the stress generated by H2O2. These results highlight the important role of ALDHs as part of the antioxidant system of the cell, since if the activity of these enzymes decreases under stress conditions, the viability of the cell is compromised.