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Recillas, F; Escalante-Alcalde, D; HernandezGarcia, D; CastroObregon, S; Terao, M; Garattini, E; Covarrubias, L (1996)

RETINOIC ACID AND METHYLATION CIS-REGULATORY ELEMENTS CONTROL THE MOUSE TISSUE NON-SPECIFIC ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE GENE EXPRESSION

MECH DEVELOP 57(1):21-32
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To understand the mechanisms regulating the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) activity during development, we characterized cis-transcriptional regulatory elements. In embryonic cells and tissues, TNAP expression was driven preferentially by the exon 1A(E1A) promoter, one of the two promoters previously defined. Transcriptional activity of E1A promoter was up-regulated by retinoic acid (RA) through a putative RA-responsive element. Transgenic mice analysis with lacZ reporter constructs revealed negative regulatory elements within 8.5 kb of ElA promoter. Promoter sequences of endogenous TNAP in non-expressing tissues and those carried by the 8.5 kb-lacZ transgene were found to be highly methylated. A 1 kb fragment of E1A promoter increased the methylation level of lacZ and promoter sequences. The role of RA and DNA methylation in defining the embryonic expression pattern of TNAP is discussed.