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Hiriart, M; Diaz-Villasenor, A; Burns, AL; Salazar, AM; Sordo, M; Cebrian, ME; Ostrosky-Wegman, P (2008)

ARSENITE REDUCES INSULIN SECRETION IN RAT PANCREATIC BETA-CELLS BY DECREASING THE CALCIUM-DEPENDENT CALPAIN-10 PROTEOLYSIS OF SNAP-25

TOXICOL APPL PHARM 231(3):291-299
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An increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been consistently observed among residents of high arsenic exposure areas. We have previously shown that in rat pancreatic beta-cells, low arsenite doses impair the secretion of insulin without altering its synthesis. To further study the mechanism by which arsenite reduces insulin secretion, we evaluated the effects of arsenite on the calcium-calpain pathway that triggers insulin exocytosis in RINm5F cells. Cell cycle and proliferation analysis were also performed to complement the characterization. Free [Ca2+]i oscillations needed for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were abated in the presence of subchronic low arsenite doses (0.5-2 mu M). The global activity of calpains increased with 2 mu M arsenite. However, during the secretion of insulin stimulated with glucose (15.6 mM), 1 mu M arsenite decreased the activity of calpain-10, measured as SNAP-25 proteolysis. Both proteins are needed to fuse insulin granules with the membrane to produce insulin exocytosis. Arsenite also induced a slowdown in the beta cell line proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, reflected by a reduction of dividing cells and in their arrest in G2/M.Data obtained showed that one of the mechanisms by which arsenite impairs insulin secretion is by decreasing the oscillations of free [Ca2+]i, thus reducing calcium-dependent calpain-10 partial proteolysis of SNAP-25. The effects in cell division and proliferation observed with arsenite exposure can be an indirect consequence of the decrease in insulin secretion. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.